Slab On Grade Design Calculations

It has long been known that the Plasticity Index (PI) of the soil can be used as an indicator of. Concrete Foundation Types. There are a few rules of thumb you can plan with and your codes may specify minimum. Concrete slabs typically cost about $6 per square foot, or between $4 and $8 per square foot including labor. Monolithic slabs take their name from their one-pour design. DSI Canada Civil receives PTI Award of Merit for Slab on Grade Project DSI Canada Civil is the recipient of a 2017 PTI Award of Merit for a slab on grade project: The Teck Truck Maintenance Facility. Here are some helpful tips to ensure that each step of the job is done properly. Calculate volumes for concrete slabs, walls, footers, columns, steps, curbs and gutters. The service live load is 100 psf, and 4000 psi concrete is specified for use with steel with a yield stress equal to 60,000 psi. 2013-10-29. xls" to calculate its heat loss. For example, in a 4-inch [100 mm] thick slab the joint spacing should be about Saw cut Tooled Wall or Column Expansion joint material Slab on grade Column Contraction joints intersect at diagonals of the square Form openings which will be filled after floor has hardened Concrete cracks below joints Slab isolated from. Floor finish load. The soil below the foundation is expansive clay with properties determined by the soil engineer. Typically, these slabs will be between 6-12" thick. Calculate self weight of the concrete slabs; 3. An engineer designing an on-grade slab makes the same calculations and follows the same requirements used in the design of traditional post-tensioned slabs on grade, and then applies them to the on-grade mat foundation ensuring the system possesses equal or greater stiffness. In this section several typical slab-on-grade sections are illustrated and described. Deck Load Design & Calculations - Part 1. Along with some space for storage, you could consider including laundry facilities, or even a pantry in that space. #3 bars at 10” (A sfy = 5200 lbs. 6 x 6 - W2. This section, taken largely from the 1993 AASHTO Guide, briefly discusses the design process for JRCP and CRCP. The slab is modelled as a simply supported continuous beam. ) K u = 29 for U. The floor diaphragms are assumed to be rigid. Structural Calculations large hydrostatic force at the ground level basement walls tie into the slab on grade to use the slab on grade as a diaphragm. Foundation 6 Foundation Slab-on-grade Slab perimeter (edge) insulation must be installed where the slab is part of the conditioned space of the house. My garage is a thickened edge slab (5 inch slab, edge is 18 inch by 12 inch). 0 Footings. Sneak-Peak: Slab-on-Grade Design in ADAPT-Builder 2017 with Bekaert Dramix Steel Fiber 2018-05-24 This video introduces a new option to be available commercially in ADAPT-Builder 2018 for designing slabs-on-grade in ADAPT-Builder with Bekaert Dramix. 1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems with or without beams loaded only by gravity loads and having a fairly regular layout meeting the following conditions:. Difference in the Cost of a Slab & Raised Home The cost of a slab versus a raised foundation varies based on the size of your home, the design and where you live. 2 thoughts on “ Countertop Price Estimator | Calculate the Cost of Countertops Near You ” Raymond Armstrong February 25, 2018 at 11:49 am. 0 Introduction There is growing interest within the reinforced concrete industry in using higher strength reinforcing steel for certain applications. Zhang Zachry Dept of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Statio n, Texas 77843 -3136, USA;. However, where any discrepancies occur between these calculations and the working drawings, the Engineer shall be notified immediately so proper action may be taken. 01D) - by Robert G. Reinforcement. E = the modulus of elasticity for the slab ( typically 4. How to Pour Concrete on Slab on Grade (SOG) Tweet Reason and extension: The reason for this strategy proclamation is to clarify the best possible technique on the best way to get ready and cast piece on grade 1 or any level component or part including obsession of steel support, MEP embedment, fixing of shade and so forth without wounds. Monte Vista Upland, CA 91786. Analysis of a slab's capacity to support on interior line load or concentrated point load: On-screen warning messages for out of compliance conditions. Concrete Mix Design Data:-(a) Characteristic compressive strength of concrete required at end of 28 days = M 25. The characteristic self-weights of the footing. Yield Strength in psi. 0 Corbels 9. Slab-on-Grade Foundation Best Practices. Current practice is to use manuals developed for buildings and pavements. Then, calculate and enter the linear feet of perimeter of the slab on grade. Slab-on-grade construction has a wide variety of applications including industrial and commercial floors, tennis courts and recreational surfaces. The ability to analyze the capacity of a slab on grade subjected to continuous wall (line-type) load as well as stationary, uniformly distributed live loads is also provided. 002 Slab with grade 60 deformbars or welded wire reinforcement: 0. The construction advantages of a raised wood floor system include: 1. The software has been developed in accordance with two globally recognized guidance documents and is free to download. Slab on Grade Design. Determine the loads based on the building's parameters (Section D. Total load on slab, w = 31. 0 addresses design options for various individual structural components of the foundation systems that are discussed in Section 4. 667 x Concrete Deadload Note: this equation and analysis does not include nor does it consider the deadload of the structure bearing on the foundation. Will the proposed slab system bring up other additional. If this is the case, then the design of the slab on grade is an engineered structural slab, that will span any settlement that may occur within the sub grade. Builders who offer the raised wood floor option, framed with durable, renewable wood, create value for not only their clients, but also themselves. [citation needed] Geotechnical considerations. values established for each swell mode (edge and center lift) Design cannot be. This includes a slab-on-grade house or addition, the walkout portion of a heated basement, or a breezeway that shares a slab with the garage. Directions: Enter values for design (factored) moment, beam "stem" width, b w, effective depth, d, span, spacing, and slab thickness (not all parameters are used for all calculations). In both cases, enter the exposed perimeter into the calculators based on the total perimeter of the basement and slab portions respectively, less the common perimeter shared by the intersection of the basement and slab portions as. Design of two way slab. Slabs are usually used in floor and roof construction. 0 x 106pounds per square inch) 257. Too general to give an answer. foundation design. Packard (Portland Cement Association, 1976) Comments: 1. Although generally preceded by flexural failure, punching shear is a brittle failure mode and the risk of progressive collapse requires a higher safety class in structural design. In these climates, slab-on-grade foundations work well, as long as the slab is built to a good standard of quality and performance. Dead Load (DL) Rail:. Thank you for your purchase of STAAD Foundation Advanced, a software package for the analysis and design of a variety of foundations. 2 applies for Grade 60 stirrups. The guidelines provided herein are based on NCHRP Report 663 with the exception that a resistance factor of 0. Concrete slabs are essential to the structural stability and design of modern buildings. The slab thickness depends on the type of loads on the floor slab. Concrete Box Culvert analysis and Design Spreadsheet 4 January 2018 Off Prestressed Concrete Circular Hollow Pole/Pile Design Based on ACI 318-14 & AASHTO 17th. Although generally preceded by flexural failure, punching shear is a brittle failure mode and the risk of progressive collapse requires a higher safety class in structural design. CE 437/537, Fall 2002 Slab-On-Grade Example -Design Info 1 / 8 Design the thickness for a slab-on-grade concrete slab in a warehouse. Evaporation of moisture from the top surface of a slab causes the upper half of the slab to shrink more than the lower half. basement foundations). 0 Beam-Column Joints 7. The guidelines provided herein are based on NCHRP Report 663 with the exception that a resistance factor of 0. This will constitute the need for the engineer to design a pressure slab, to withstand any uplift that. The finite element method is commonly used to design the reinforcement in concrete slabs. For example, if the living room is a 20' x 30' slab on grade, the linear perimeter would be 100ft. ) with plaster on each side. The design summary is: 2" x 12" 20 gage composite floor deck with a 6. 0 x 106pounds per square inch) 257. We will focus our attention on tension-controlled sections. For example, if the slab is 10′ x 10′ and the clearance is 3″, the size of the rebar grid will be 9′ 6″ x 9′ 6″. CONCLUSION With building owners’ growing desire to save money on heating and cooling costs, and increasingly stringent energy codes, contractors will be installing below-grade and under. Ultimately, in lieu of a slab-on-grade foundation, Williams used two layers of 2-in. To make distinctions between the equations quoted from the Code and the equations derived in this Manual, the former will be prefixed by (Ceqn) and. SLABS-ON-GRADE CRSI ENGINEERING THE GENERAL PROCESS OF DESIGN The design of a slab-on-grade includes all equation is used for calculation of the steel areas,. Friction at bottom of slab is trying to prevent the. This project uses modeling software to address these questions: A shallow frost-protected foundation relies on heat loss to the ground to keep the soils beneath the footing above freezing. Conclusion Elevator pits in slab-on-grade building construction introduce below-grade space that, based on project conditions, may require below-grade waterproofing. To understand the rationale behind insulated slab-on-grade design, it is important to understand the nature of heat flows affecting slab-on-grade construction. When concrete slab shrink or expansion, it will drag the soil beneath the slab with it. basement foundations). Concrete is poured onto a strong steel tray, which gives it added strength for use in building or other construction purposes. The article presents detailed results of the experiment made and advanced numerical modelling based on nonlinear analysis and application of fracture-plastic model. Including steel fabric design. AdvanTech subfloor. thermal expansion and contraction of the concret e The structural design of a concrete floor slab on grade is primarily controlled by the stresses caused by moving live loads and in some cases the stationary loads. In order to improve productivity, the GSE software provides an automatic slab on grade generation function. The amount given as needed, does not include any waste. The column heads may be provided with any angle from the consideration of architecture but for the design, concrete in the portion at 45º on either side of vertical only is considered as effective for the design [Ref. Radiant heating system design or installation mistakes that must be avoided. pdf), Text File (. Deck Load Design & Calculations - Part 1. 3,500 psi for carport and garage floor slabs on undisturbed grade. ACI 360, "Design of Slabs-on-Grade", refers to this as a Type B slab. xls), PDF File (. Explore other calculators related to housing or building, as well as hundreds of other calculators addressing finance, math, fitness, health, and more. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SLABS ON GRADE WITH SINGLE LAYER OF REINFORCEMENT Ground supported slabs are frequently designed with a single layer of reinforcing. Three types of loads are to be considered for the design of slabs: Dead load of the slab; Live load of the slab; Floor finish load; Dead load of the slab. ONE WAY AND TWO WAY SLAB DESIGN. 8=24MPa Mean Axial Tensile Strength fctm≔0. Here is some information on those calculations. It can be concluded that the design load (ps) on the bottom slab is the same for dry conditions and for conditions where water levels in the ground are at or below grade. Reinforcement. By design a slab-on-grade foundation enables the ability to place plumbing, phone and internet cables, and electrical wires below the slab surface, keeping these components out of sight and out of mind. Diameter of main and perpendicular reinforcement (top and bottom). 3⋅ = ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 0. For seismic design per Notes for the Designer, footnote 7, the engineer of record will design the concrete slab based on 1. •some fundamental remarks •the problem •the solutions (foundations, designs) •development of the design method -equation for shape of soil surface (flex cover) -maximum water tension related to weather -max moment and deflection when slab on soil -parametric study -design chart development •case history. Too general to give an answer. In order to improve productivity, the GSE software provides an automatic slab on grade generation function. This guide presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. Processing. 5 m have considerably reduced the maximum tensile stress, because only one wheel set is loading each slab. In both cases, enter the exposed perimeter into the calculators based on the total perimeter of the basement and slab portions respectively, less the common perimeter shared by the intersection of the basement and slab portions as. Slab-on-grade concrete slab foundation to form an integral footing: Poured thicker at the edges with re bar reinforcing. I am modeling a slab-on-grade floor using the methods described under the help for the U-EFF. The original theory and equations by H. Calculate Rebar Spacing, Layout and Weight in a Concrete Slab. The ±3/4 in. 3,500 psi for carport and garage floor slabs on undisturbed grade. This calculation allows us to compare the total energy available to do the work based on both the voltage and size of the battery pack (amp-hours). For 6" to 10" thick slabs on grade with 'k' values between 100 pci and 200. On the right is the slab formwork for a suspended concrete slab to a multi story building, but this system of concrete formwork could just as easily be used on an owner builder house. Figures 4-12 through 4-14 show variations where the slab is the primary location for insulation. 0 Corbels 9. In order to improve the productivity of SAFI users, an automatic slab on grade generation function has been added. Calculation Description: "GRDSLAB" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of concrete slabs on grade. Only the design of Slab Bridge will be used for illustration. This problem is. If an in-slab heating system is used, additional insulation below the slab and around the perimeter is recommended for improved energy efficiency. In this example, with the sub-grade comprising a consistent medium dense sand, a design span of 0. The structural design is completed by structural engineer of record (SEOR) where he/she utilizes the concept of Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation in order to estimate the pressure of soil as well as shear forces and bending moments induced to the. Using a design equation based on a more rigorous analysis of the design conditions can help avoid over-engineering the insulation and save thousands of dollars on the project. Summary of Bill of Quantities (Civil Works) Bar Bending Schedule. The design horizontal shear bond strength using. Consistent with the 2009 IECC, slab edge insulation is only required for slab -on grade floors with a floor surface less than 12 inches below grade. This allows the slab to move at least 3/8” before. Pipe Culvert Outlet Control Design Calculations. Appendix 6—Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on-ground using yield line method, p. Sizes available: 120x60 60x60 60x30 30x30 30x15 (inches). Negative rebars. Slab-on-grade foundations are commonly used in areas with expansive clay soil. Slab on Grade foundation, detail design; the basics. Sample design calculations are included in File Nos. The diagram will re-size and re-scale to fit the page as it grows. The following sections from the PCI Design Handbook include interaction curves, load tables, and section properties for various precast concrete components. That is, the concentrated post or wheel load is assumed to be well away from a "free" slab edge or corner. Determine whether the slab geometry and loading allow the use of the direct design method as listed in DDM. Slab insulation shall extend to the top of the slab to provide a complete thermal break. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360"Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. A floating slab for a mobile home runs $4,600 to $14,000, while a standard 24' x 24' (2-car) garage foundation costs $3,100 to $4,800. Typically, these slabs will be between 6-12" thick. 0 Transfer Structures 11. NW, Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4303 REINFORCING STEEL SLABS-ON-GRADE ENGINEERING DATA ‘ ' REPORT No. Maybe you might wonder what the purpose of construction joints is and what it is all about. In both cases, enter the exposed perimeter into the calculators based on the total perimeter of the basement and slab portions respectively, less the common perimeter shared by the intersection of the basement and slab portions as. Spread the word. Construction of Slab on Ground- Design Elements The construction of slab on ground requires certain basic design elements. Slab-on-grade foundations are one of the most popular types of foundations in the U. When concrete slab shrink or expansion, it will drag the soil beneath the slab with it. Concrete As Insulation Construction MagazineR Values Of Flooring System Components TableWhat Is R Value And U Of Concrete Slab Per Inch CalculationUltrafloor ThermalDesign Navigator […]. Modulus of subgrade reaction in picocurie or megapascals 3. Post-Tensioned Slab-on-Grade Foundation 3D FEM Design Software ADAPT-SOG Product Overview ADAPT-SOG is a complete three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element (FEM) Analysis and Design tool for the analysis and design of post-tensioned foundations slabs on expansive soils. With the right design, the detractors of slab foundations can be reduced or done-away-with entirely, and the benefits can be maximized, making slab-on-grade a fantastic choice for home building in Ottawa. Disclaimer: This calculator is not intended to be used for the design of actual structures, but only for schematic (preliminary) understanding of structural design principals. *Subject:* [Equest-users] Slab on Grade Floor Heat Loss. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion. xlsx), PDF File (. The article handles potential approaches to design and determination of total load capacity of foundation slabs and floors. Design of slab-on-grade foundations on expansive soils requires that the geotechnical engineer determine the maximum differential heave and the distance in from the edge of the slab over which the differential heave takes place (PTI, 2004). 5 minutes and mowed 38,600 sq. This example will use the standard deck slab design as explained in the Design Guide. An engineered raft foundation and flooring system that offers real benefits over a conventional concrete slab! READY Super Slab is an above ground engineered raft foundation system, commonly known as a raft foundation, pod floor, waffle slab or floating foundation, that delivers real benefits over a conventional concrete floor and foundations. It was actually the widespread use of the "post-tensioned" slab-on-ground which induced this interest in design procedure and in many studies of reported slab failures. 2 thoughts on “ Countertop Price Estimator | Calculate the Cost of Countertops Near You ” Raymond Armstrong February 25, 2018 at 11:49 am. Home Site Map - S teps - Foundations-. Such slabs are referred to as membrane slabs, floating slabs, or filler slabs and range in thickness from as little as 4" to 8" depending on the supported loads. our calculations as well. Diameter of main and perpendicular reinforcement (top and bottom). Sizes available: 120x60 60x60 60x30 30x30 30x15 (inches). I asked this a couple of days ago on the HAP users forum and no one has responded so hopefully I'll have better luck here. In two way slab, distribution bars are provided in both sides of slab. First, in order to use a two-way slab of any type the bays (the area between columns) must be relatively square as the ratio of the length of the. Crazing Crazing, a network pattern of fine cracks that do not penetrate much below the surface, is caused by minor surface shrinkage Concrete Slab Surface Defects: Causes, Prevention, Repair Figure 3. 2015 IECC/IRC Section R402. A reinforced concrete slab is built integrally with its supports and consists of two equal spans, each with a clear span of 15 ft. Slab thickness in inches or milli meter. Re: Sub-base Thickness for Slab on Grade 10/08/2012 3:00 PM For any grade slab design, first we have to find the sub grade reaction factor (K) based on the plate load test over the selected surface. Slab-on-grade foundations forgo the basement foundation, and instead pour a simple concrete pad on top of a soil substrate, and build the structure on top. This was part of a multi-sheet project for the complete design of an A-frame wood structure. 2—Assumptions/design criteria Conversion factors, p. Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. Design is defined as the decision-. thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete The structural design of a concrete floor slab on grade is primarily controlled by the stresses caused by moving live loads and in some cases the stationary loads. These under all of the steel support legs and props. Parameters of concrete (concrete class, strength, unit weight). BDM 2020; BDM 2019 Basic Load Rating Calculations Concrete Slab Rating. Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions™ for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for the world’s bridge engineers 2688 Venado Way Rescue, CA 95672 Phone: 530-672-1569 E-mail: [email protected] 2x 1 where x = distance of load-from support closest to load I = effective span. It can be concluded that the design load (ps) on the bottom slab is the same for dry conditions and for conditions where water levels in the ground are at or below grade. Often, selection of a sub-slab insulation product for structural slab-on-grade applications is based upon ability to sustain compressive loads transferred through the concrete slab, without full and accurate determination of the load distribution characteristics of the concrete slab. The F-factors for slab-on-grade floors are defined in Standard 90. Design of Slab (Examples and Tutorials) by Sharifah Maszura Syed Mohsin Example 1: Simply supported One way slab A rectangular reinforced concrete slab is simply-supported on two masonry walls 250 mm thick and 3. SLABS-ON-GRADE CRSI ENGINEERING THE GENERAL PROCESS OF DESIGN The design of a slab-on-grade includes all equation is used for calculation of the steel areas,. 12 Preliminary design method to determine initial slab. 876 = Conversion constant. Stresses in floor slabs on grade resulting from vehicular loads are a function of. Contact PNA for size and spacing to suit your design and slab type. Unheated slab-on-grade floor: a slab-on-grade floor that is not a heated slab-on-grade floor. 111 ksf Maximum Moment for an edge-supported (2. 5" occurring anywhere in the span. Eco-friendly & Lightning Fast. For indoor exposure, 1. The structural calculations included here are for the analysis and design of primary structural system. Bending will take place in the two directions in a dish-like form. GUIDELINES FOR RAILROAD GRADE SEPARATION PROJECTS, MAY 2016 4 1. For a class project, I have a max 250 psf load acting on the slab on grade, resting on a silty clay soil layer. Figure 1: Physical and analytical models of a simple column on a footing. Determine the loads based on the building's parameters (Section D. No temporary propping was required. h(min) for the slab is different compared with the beams. Its more than just forms and pouring concrete! The slab has to be at least 3. Slab bottom steel in the direction of cantilever is # 13 @ 190 mm c/c. Detailed plans, sections, elevations, schedules, and tables may be generated, viewed, and printed from within SAFE or exported to CAD packages. Monolithic slab is a term used in concrete slab construction to describe concrete structural elements such as footings, slabs, foundations, grade beams, piers, and columns being poured simultaneously. Figure 136 shows a footing carrying characteristic vertical actions VGk (permanent) and V Qk (variable) imposed on it by the super-structure. The difficulties in repairing slabs and floor systems in refrigerated buildings highlight the need for more thorough design to avoid these problems. (2) Calculate the loads acting over a depression located at an unsupported slab corner, as per Fig. Sizes available: 120x60 60x60 60x30 30x30 30x15 (inches). Figure B-10: Alternative Floor Slab Detail. We manufacturer over 1,400 products from our central Florida plant. To find out the exact amount it will take to construct an RCC roof slab, let’s take an example. Grade or Structured Slab Suitable Insulation Wire Mesh/Rebar Note 3, Control Joint (Sawcut or formed) For installations where tubing has to penetrate through or under a control joint. The next issue of Precast Solutions will discuss loads applied to underground precast structures during flood conditions where water is above grade. 1, this section is not for slabs-on-grade. Necessary checking such as deflection and crack control. We will refer to the PCA Rectangular Concrete Tanks design manual as PCA-R, and the circular tank design manual as PCA-C. Post-Tension Design 1202 N. drainpipe elevation for slab on grade structure I built a house on a lot that didn't have enough fall to have an outlet for a drain four feet below grade to daylight. 8=24MPa Mean Axial Tensile Strength fctm≔0. A slab on grade is used in warmer climates where it is not necessary for the foundation walls to extend down below the frost line. Some forms of joints are: Contraction joints — are intended to create weakened planes in the concrete and regulate the location where cracks, resulting from dimensional changes, will occur. Slab on Grade Excel Sheet - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (. 5 kN per linear meter of floor edge or; 2% of total dead load on the form distributed as a uniform load per meter of slab edge. Armstrong, Richard C. Type I and III cements can cause higher concrete shrinkage than type II cement because of their higher water demands. Yield Strength in psi. 75 kN/m 2 In the above calculation of RCC slab weight, further additional load due to floor finishes are included generally for stone/cement floorings 0. Design a thickened slab to support the columns and. This assumes that the slab thickness has previously been determined during conceptual design. Design of Pad Foundations 6. Columns made by other materials (e. Two way slab design by direct design method as per ACI 318-11, step by step procedure and limitations of direct design method for two way slab is presented. high wind areas after the calculations needed to determine footing bearing have been com-pleted. It is recommended, depending on the job you are doing, to add anywhere from an extra 4% to 10% to your concrete order to make sure you have enough concrete to finish the job. 640 k/ft) and the design wheel loads. 1—Introduction A6. with Grade 40, or 6600. Total load on slab, w = 31. 0 NOTATION Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar Length of a side of a rectangular pad foundation Area of tensile reinforcement Area of tensile reinforcement to resist bending about x-axis Area of tensile reinforcement to resist bending about y-axis Width of reinforced concrete section. Our concrete calculator provides you an easy way to calculate concrete volume and estimated cost of concrete slabs, footers, walls, columns, steps, stairs, curbs and gutters in cubic feet, cubic yards, and cubic meters and inches. The calculations' algorithms adopted in the application meet the criteria of the Polish and Europe Union building construction law, and are based on the Polish PN-B-03264:2002 and. Engineered Fiber Calculations – Design aids and other tools are available to all Euclid. This is the first time we get this comment, even though in all previous certifications we always model the slab on grade floor of the proposed design using the. Heated slabs-on-grade will feature hot water pipes or coils embedded within or beneath the slab to provide space heating. This concrete calculator will help you in estimating the amount of concrete needed for your project. For beams and slabs; Calculates link spacing for a given link diameter; Nominal links are provided in beams as a minimum; It is seldom that shear will govern slab design - therefore the spreadsheet first checks slab as with no shear reinforcement. There are a few rules of thumb you can plan with and your codes may specify minimum. Your final cost will depend on the slabs size, thickness, and if you any special reinforcement such as wire mesh or rebar. These calculations shall govern the structural portion of the working drawings. We have qualified engineers with years of experience in precast slab systems. Punching shear is a phenomenon in flat slabs caused by concentrated support reactions inducing a cone shaped perforation starting from the top surface of the slab. 1806 and (3. A Few Fundamentals Residential slab on grade construction involves clearing and leveling the soil where one is going to build a home, forming and pouring a concrete pad (the slab), and stick framing the walls and decks of the home on the slab. RETAINING WALL DESIGN TEMPORARY CONDITION The following calculations will consider the worst case. Concrete slabs supported directly on the ground may not be less than 3 1/2 inches thick. For 10-12" slabs we typically go with a double mat of #5 @ 12" oc. We ensure the most suitable and economical precast design to suit. 1 Purpose The purpose of these Guidelines is to inform Applicants, Contractors and other parties concerned with Railroad policies of the requirements and standards for the design and construction of Grade Separation Projects. Floors - Fiber Deflection. The service live load is 100 psf and 4000 psi concrete is specified for use with steel with a yield stress equal to 60000 psi. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion. Some foundations used for light buildings on shrink-swell soils. DSI Canada Civil receives PTI Award of Merit for Slab on Grade Project DSI Canada Civil is the recipient of a 2017 PTI Award of Merit for a slab on grade project: The Teck Truck Maintenance Facility. Reinforcing is added to control shrinkage cracking and maximize the distance between designed joints. Complete Analysis & Design of a Slab on Grade Structure - Analyses uniform thickness finite Slab on Grade with free ends, supported by a vertical subgrade modulus and subjected to a Wall Load, Point Load and Uniform Pressure. Slab thicknesses solution based on allowable slab tension considering pre-compression from post- tensioning and calculated slab design moments induced by shrinking or swelling soils. Slab on Grade-Calculation Report. In order to improve the productivity of SAFI users, an automatic slab on grade generation function has been added. slab on grade The soil-structure interaction is an important component in the design of a building or any structure in general. The design loads, required spans,. Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 – Lesson 5 6 4. 1 - GEOMETRY. ) K u = 29 for U. Step One: Choose the Right Concrete. Number of Main Bars = Ly / spacing + 1 = (4000/150) + 1 = 27 nos. Compressive strength in pounds per square inch or kilo Pascals 2. Post-Tension Design 1202 N. 40, 7920 lbs. units or 19. Examine problems of slabs on grade and methods of their repair ; Discuss practical methods of renovating settled and heaved slabs. Floors - Thickness For Sta. Re: Slab on grade - lack of convergence for soil with uplift Hi Artur, I have set this parameters previously but calculation doesn´t converge. Prepare a bar bending schedule in order to classify different shapes of bars (bent up bar, straight anchor bar, eos bar, curtail bar etc) and diameters. The sample input is given as follows; LAY-SLAB-1 = LAYERS. Brick,Concrete, Plaster,Tile,Converter Excel Sheet. These short slabs between 1. The amount of steel is typically expressed as a percentage of the slab cross sectional area. D Department of Civil Engg. Design Sheet of Slab on Grade. The first step in placing large concrete slabs, patios, driveways, etc. Longitudinal joint spacing on two-lane and multilane concrete pavements typically is about 10 to 13 ft (3. The design of the HFRC slabs-on-grade uses the values of thickness of the slab(h), width of the slab(b), joint spacing(w), grade of concrete and fibre type and dosage are assumed. Other colors and sizes are available special order (SOLD BY THE PALLET) direct from Italy with a 8-10 week lead time. 40, 7920 lbs. 6 illustrates the calculation of grade resistance. Design a thickened slab to support the columns and. Shafiul Bari, Ph. BASIS OF FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE DESIGN 2-1. Project Management Templates. The goal of this reinforced concrete design example is to find the design moment strength of a reinforced concrete one-way slab per ACI Code 318-11. Much of the PCA publication is comprised of tables of coefficients for calculating moment and shear in two-way slabs. on each level, located near Ottawa, Canada. Comprehensive and customizable reports are available for all analysis and design results. There are many variables that influence the decision of how much space to leave, including the maximum load the slab is likely to have to support, the bearing capacity of the soil, the diameter of the reinforcing rebar, the likelihood of frost heaving the slab, and whether or not the slab is on a level grade. DESIGN OF PILE CAP. Brick,Concrete, Plaster,Tile,Converter Excel Sheet. Abdelmalak and X. Get in touch with us to find out more about how Windmill Construction and the benefits of slab on grade. 1 applies for Grade 40 stirrups, and SHEAR 4. We go to all this effort to get the proper soil support system and what we end up with is a single input value for the slab design. thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete The structural design of a concrete floor slab on grade is primarily controlled by the stresses caused by moving live loads and in some cases the stationary loads. l-Purpose and scope Consistent with the mission of ACI Committee 360, this report presents state-of-the-art information on the design of slabs on grade. "GRDSLAB" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of concrete slabs on grade. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. and the concrete mix ratio is 1:2:4 then to find out the construction cost, you will need to calculate. This modulus is widely used in structural design of mats and slabs. Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions™ for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for the world’s bridge engineers 2688 Venado Way Rescue, CA 95672 Phone: 530-672-1569 E-mail: [email protected] Dead Load (DL) Rail:. Complete Analysis & Design of a Slab on Grade Structure - Analyses uniform thickness finite Slab on Grade with free ends, supported by a vertical subgrade modulus and subjected to a Wall Load, Point Load and Uniform Pressure. Code to add this calci to your website Just copy and paste the below code to your webpage where you want to display this calculator. Joints in concrete slabs can be created by forming, tooling, sawing, and placement of joint formers. com Internet: www. Volume of Concrete = 0. To find out the exact amount it will take to construct an RCC roof slab, let’s take an example. 5 inch is typical for beams and columns, 0. Concrete Mix design of M – 20, M – 25, M – 30 and higher grade of concrete can be calculated from following steps: Concrete Mix Design As Per IS 10262: Data Required for Mix Design of Concrete: i. This application can be used to make quick parameters calculations of beams and reinforced concrete slab not only in the office but also at the construction site. BASIS OF FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE DESIGN 2-1. Common mistakes in concrete floor slab construction can be avoided with proper base preparation, mix design, placement, finishing, and curing. The slab is modelled as a simply supported continuous beam. For beams and slabs; Calculates link spacing for a given link diameter; Nominal links are provided in beams as a minimum; It is seldom that shear will govern slab design - therefore the spreadsheet first checks slab as with no shear reinforcement. Reinforcing is added to control shrinkage cracking and maximize the distance between designed joints. The result is a lightly reinforced slab designed to offset the effects of temperature and shrinkage of the concrete. 61e help files. It addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. 2003), discusses the use of cast-in-place post tensioned slabs in steel framed parking structures. This allows the register in one of the rooms to be positioned under the window. ONE WAY AND TWO WAY SLAB DESIGN. Structural slab over backfill. is preferred. 3 ? Why are there different F-Factors for the same horizontal insulation distance and the same R-value? The example below that is highlighted is that if I have a slab with 12 inches of R-5 horizontal insulation is the F-Factor 0. 876 = Conversion constant. Slab design: Slab may be defined as that structural element that is subjected to distribute loads primarily in a plan of slab. Concrete Slab Maximum Wall Load Calculator. 13 Restraint to contracting. txt) or read online for free. A review of the design values suggests that a more balanced design option for the subject matter floor slab would be to increase the amount of post-tensioning provided. Per PCA "Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade" - Figure 3, page 5 Job Name: Sunset Farms, Inc. 12: BS 8110 if the following conditions applied. The top (steel) reinforcement is important. These manual methods though good, do not reflect the dynamics which occur for slabs particularly if the slabs are cooled and heated. ” Vapor barriers have been associated with certain concrete slab-on-grade problems including curling and cracking. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion of the types of slabs, soil-support systems, loadings, and jointing. 4 thoughts on “ Concrete Calculator – Estimate Amount Of Concrete for Slab / Footing, Column & Stairs ” Tony Jacobs April 13, 2017 at 12:41 am. Dead Load (DL) Rail:. If there are concerns regarding the ability of the earth to support the slab on grade, the engineer may decide to increase the thickness and install reinforcing steel within the slab itself. These short slabs between 1. 3 ? Why are there different F-Factors for the same horizontal insulation distance and the same R-value? The example below that is highlighted is that if I have a slab with 12 inches of R-5 horizontal insulation is the F-Factor 0. Builders who offer the raised wood floor option, framed with durable, renewable wood, create value for not only their clients, but also themselves. Direction of main reinforcement (along the X / Y axes). Parameters of reinforcing steel (steel grade, strength). One-way and Two-way Slabs One-way slabs transfer the imposed loads in one direction only. 0 Transfer Structures 11. Among all types of these structures, monolithic slab bases are the most reliable, durable and durable. To make distinctions between the equations quoted from the Code and the equations derived in this Manual, the former will be prefixed by (Ceqn) and. Vapor retarders are frequently specified for interior concrete slabs on grade where moisture protection is desired. Concrete Floor Slab-on-Grade Design Problem 1 - Required concrete thickness: Design a warehouse floor slab for an interior wall load of 1400 plf, stationary live load of 1200 plf, exterior wall load of 1000 plf and an average daily volume of 25-15 kip forklift trucks per day using 4000 psi concrete and a modulus of subgrade reaction, k = 150 pci. 1) - This will on the one hand, help the control of. plumgroverd. 2—Assumptions/design criteria Conversion factors, p. Normally, formwork is designed to support load from fresh concrete (including static pressure), their self weight, live load […]. The cells include NDS 2005 code calculations and specifications. The goal of this reinforced concrete design example is to find the design moment strength of a reinforced concrete one-way slab per ACI Code 318-11. JRCP Reinforcing Steel Design. heave on exterior slabs as well as swell-ing and shrinking. Here are some helpful tips to ensure that each step of the job is done properly. Construction joint is one of the types of joints in site construction that can be located on walls and slabs. 2 Nsa loads. 1 and rating requirements as stated in 17. 'Calculations courtesy of Alex Tomanovich, PE. To understand the rationale behind insulated slab-on-grade design, it is important to understand the nature of heat flows affecting slab-on-grade construction. 1—Introduction A6. mended for interior slabs on grade (CIP 29). (total depth) slab. thermal expansion and contraction of the concrete The structural design of a concrete floor slab on grade is primarily controlled by the stresses caused by moving live loads and in some cases the stationary loads. Concrete Floor Slab-on-Grade Design Problem 1 - Required concrete thickness: Design a warehouse floor slab for an interior wall load of 1400 plf, stationary live load of 1200 plf, exterior wall load of 1000 plf and an average daily volume of 25-15 kip forklift trucks per day using 4000 psi concrete and a modulus of subgrade reaction, k = 150 pci. Thomas Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street Urbana, IL 61801 ABSTRACT. Project Sub-Title : First Floor Slab Made by Date Dead load Self weight of hollow pot slab = kN/m2 Superimposed Dead load (Screed, plaster and finishes), = 1. Often, the edge of a slab is also the edge of a landscaped area, and the concrete is a couple of inches higher than the surrounding grade. Reinforced concrete structural software includes programs for column design (pcaColumn), beam design (pcaBeam), slab design (pcaSlab), wall design (pcaWall), mat design (pcaMats), foundation design, tank. Westergaard (1926) as modified by Reference (a) in item #1 above are used forthe flexual stress analysis. A cost analysis will be provided based on data from RS Means. Under Slab Plumbing Properly sloped trenches Story so far. 14 Restraint to curling and hogging. Floor performance is influenced by:. GUIDELINES FOR RAILROAD GRADE SEPARATION PROJECTS, MAY 2016 4 1. One-way slab design. 75 kN/m 2 In the above calculation of RCC slab weight, further additional load due to floor finishes are included generally for stone/cement floorings 0. It includes a significant percentage of single family houses as well as a large percentage of commercial buildings. Enter the depth, width, and length to calculate the amount of cubic yards needed for your concrete slab. The top (steel) reinforcement is important. This article explains how to avoid some fatal mistakes when installing radiant heat in a concrete floor slab by describing an incompetent radiant heat floor installation along with an explanation of why things went wrong and how to avoid these errors. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. 5 kN per linear meter of floor edge or; 2% of total dead load on the form distributed as a uniform load per meter of slab edge. TM 5-809-1/AFM 88-3, Chap. Floor Slab Design Floors are designed as slabs on grade. This design procedure can be applied to all slab-on-grade techniques, including those with in-slab heat which provide excellent thermal comfort. This section, taken largely from the 1993 AASHTO Guide, briefly discusses the design process for JRCP and CRCP. is preferred. Figure 1: Physical and analytical models of a simple column on a footing. Stiffened Slab on Grade Elevated Structural Slab on Piers Stiffened Slab on Grade and on Piers Thin Post Tensioned Slab Figure 1. • Chapter 6 describes the shallow foundation design process for bridge foundation support on spread footings. A monolithic cement slab or diy concrete slab not only applies to concrete cast on the ground, it also applies to suspended slab. 0 was used when estimating the safety factor (calculated in relation to the modulus of rupture) that allows that the slabs of plain concrete sustain an infinite number of load repetitions. Fully Insulated Slab: Continuous insulation extends downward from the top of the slab and along the entire perimeter and completely covers the entire area under the slab. This course is a practical structural design course that contains step-by-step procedures that include instructions that help understand and design for slab on ground. It was actually the widespread use of the "post-tensioned" slab-on-ground which induced this interest in design procedure and in many studies of reported slab failures. Calculation of Volume of concrete for Slabs: A slab is in the shape of a rectangle, In order to calculate the volume of concrete required for the slab, find out the surface area of the slab and then multiply it with the depth/thickness of slab as shown in fig. Builders who offer the raised wood floor option, framed with durable, renewable wood, create value for not only their clients, but also themselves. txt) or read online for free. Meaning of slab on grade. A brick wall of 250 mm thickness including plaster of 1. On the right is the slab formwork for a suspended concrete slab to a multi story building, but this system of concrete formwork could just as easily be used on an owner builder house. It consists of a concrete slab (typically 4 inches thick) and a grade beam around the entire perimeter and under the load-bearing walls. Design the slab following the provisions of the ACI code. After the schematic design phase, the additional thickness of the concrete topping over pit slab/walls and relocating the shear walls are unlikely to be accommodated. 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab. Slab on Grade Excel Sheet - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (. Example Problem Of One Way Slab Design: A reinforced concrete slab is built integrally with its supports and consists of equal span of 15 ft. Direction of main reinforcement (along the X / Y axes). It addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. Combined Strap Footing Design. A software has been developed with design procedures based on BS 8110 and Eurocode 2, which is the design of concrete slabs. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. Roadway Grade = 1660. Post-Tensioned Slab-on-Grade Foundation 3D FEM Design Software ADAPT-SOG Product Overview ADAPT-SOG is a complete three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element (FEM) Analysis and Design tool for the analysis and design of post-tensioned foundations slabs on expansive soils. 2—Assumptions/design criteria Conversion factors, p. Aggregate subbase prepared for reinforced slab on grade. Slab being the first element to be designed has pretty much importance as the whole structural design is based on the design of slab. Wind Loads are important consideration in structural engineering in the design of a structure. Treat following design calculations as prelimi-nary estimations. 1 and rating requirements as stated in 17. According to the way loads are transferred to supporting beams and columns, slabs are classified into two types; one-way and two-way. Footings and foundations shall be constructed of solid materials such as masonry, concrete, or treated wood, based on the Foundation Design Concept Selection (Appendix A) and Founda-tion Capacity Tables. Rvalue here is the effective R value per foot of perimeter. Total load on slab, w = 31. Neglect Upward Pressure at Heel for Ftg M & V When the user DESELECTS the option to “Neglect Upward Pressure at Heel for Footing Moment and Shear”:. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. The SikaFiber® software for calculating fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade is a powerful tool for optimizing designs. Per PCA "Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade" - Figure 3, page 5 Job Name: Sunset Farms, Inc. Preamble AISC Design Guide 18, Steel Framed Open-Deck Parking Deck Structures (Churches et al. • Effects of lateral drift and internal member deformations may be considered together or independently. Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions™ for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for the world’s bridge engineers 2688 Venado Way Rescue, CA 95672 Phone: 530-672-1569 E-mail: [email protected] This guide is not a standard nor and detailed design calculations. Heated slabs-on-grade will feature hot water pipes or coils embedded within or beneath the slab to provide space heating. 12 Camber Design for Plate Girders Typical slab-on-beam bridges have space between the bottom of the slab and the top of the top flanges of beams. DESIGN CALCULATIONS - INSTA-FOOTING LOAD BEARING CAPACITIES ON CONCRETE SLAB January 14, 2017 Rev - Projection Name: Insta-Footing Design Calculations Owner: Insta-footing, LLC Prepared by: Richard Nolan, PE Nolan Engineering, PLLC 333 Kinglsey Road Burnt Hills, NY 12027 Reviewed by: Robert Mann, PE Date: 3/1/2017. Design of Slab (Examples and Tutorials) by Sharifah Maszura Syed Mohsin Example 1: Simply supported One way slab A rectangular reinforced concrete slab is simply-supported on two masonry walls 250 mm thick and 3. 37), published by the Concrete Rein-forcing Steel Institute in a joint effort with the Wire Reinforcement Institute (Tech Facts 701). Calculation Description: "GRDSLAB" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of concrete slabs on grade. For the flat slab with the general arrangement as shown below, let us design the punching shear for column B1 given the following design information; Ultimate axial force on column VEd = 400 kN Thickness of slab = 250 mm Dimension of column = 450 x 230 mm Reinforcement of slab in the longer direction = [email protected] (As,prov = […]. Example on Design of Slab Bridge Design Data and Specifications Superstructure consists of 10m slab, 36m box girder and 10m T-girder all simply supported. 1-2007, the base building. This webinar was presented. A slab on grade is used in warmer climates where it is not necessary for the foundation walls to extend down below the frost line. 3,500 psi for carport and garage floor slabs on undisturbed grade. 20,000psi 24,000psi 24,000psi. Slab on grade will calculate your main floor as concrete. Remarks Only water penetration which is documented as active within the warranty period is warranted; dampness caused by condensation or other causes is not considered to be water penetration and is not covered by the statutory warranty. Home Products Tekla Tedds Calculation List Us Codes. Joints in concrete slabs can be created by forming, tooling, sawing, and placement of joint formers. [citation needed] Geotechnical considerations. The Kobalt 80v took first place, it ran 85. DESIGN OF PILE CAP. 06 Wall details Retaining wall type Cantilever propped at base Height of retaining wall stem hstem = 3500 mm. On-grade foundations are a popular design in Interior Alaska. Reinforced Concrete III: Design of Slabs 4. 1(a)], in which the structural action is essentially one-way, the loads being carried in direction perpendicular to the supporting beams or walls. * Heated slabs and energy efficiency. RE: Concrete slab on grade design ksdphilippines (Structural) 3 Jun 08 02:47 There's also a good reference and design guide published by the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia "Industrial Floors and Pavements". Basic concrete: This is the lowest grade of concrete. Step Three: Estimate the Rows and Columns Find the number of bars needed for each direction by dividing the width of the grid by the desired spacing. The same goes for a six inch thick slab, being actually 5-1/2" thick. Using the CFS Slab Calculator, you can quickly and easily generate designs and specifications for uniform loads, wheeled loads, and rack post loads. 2-way reinforced concrete slab, prestressed or non-prestressed – Supporting 2 to 4 stories of wood-framing above – Parking below, generally below grade Slab supported on concrete columns (round, 12-16”φ) and perimeter CMU walls. 1 applies for Grade 40 stirrups, and SHEAR 4. The sample input is given as follows; LAY-SLAB-1 = LAYERS. The recommendations derived from these and other studies vary from extremely light to extremely heavy. Complete Analysis & Design of a Slab on Grade Structure - Analyses uniform thickness finite Slab on Grade with free ends, supported by a vertical subgrade modulus and subjected to a Wall Load, Point Load and Uniform Pressure. SUBJECT: Moment Slab This memorandum provides guidelines for design of barrier-moment slab systems on Geosynthetic and structural earth walls. 1 Design and Rating Requirements All new concrete slab structures are to meet design requirements as stated in 17. Armstrong, Richard C. high wind areas after the calculations needed to determine footing bearing have been com-pleted. 876 = Conversion constant. The slab thickness depends on the type of loads on the floor slab. 56 - Roadway grade dictates elevation of. The question is how much insulation to put under the slab? The designer suggested 2" rigid foam but this doesn't seem enough to me, so I told him to double it, to 4" rigid foam. -Calculate the volume of concrete required for slabs, walls, footings and columns. Download: Flat Slab Design Pdf. Thickness of Slab - 150 mm ; One Way Slab Bar Bending Schedule Calculation. Avoid changes in slab thickness within any slab. GUIDELINES FOR RAILROAD GRADE SEPARATION PROJECTS, MAY 2016 4 1. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, EB001, and Diagnosis and Control of Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in Concrete, IS413. One of the comments I received back is that this erroneously shows up as an exterior surface and I should delete all the slab on grade floors in the component tree. Appendix 6—Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on-ground using yield line method, p. One of the comments I received back is that this erroneously shows up as an exterior surface and I should delete all the slab on grade floors in the component tree. (Asfy = 4400 lbs. The International Residential Code (IRC) lays out a series of requirements for pouring a concrete slab on grade. Reinforcing is added to control shrinkage cracking and maximize the distance between designed joints. But as long the tendons and the concrete in front of the anchors are not damaged, drilling into a post-tensioned slab is a fairly routine issue. Properly designed monolithic floating slab foundations are approved for use on garages and accessory buildings by many municipalities, north and south, across the U. Some options for finishing a concrete slab are staining and a smooth surface for a finished floor application. For a 6-8" slab they are often #4-#5 bars @ 12" oc centered in slab. Two way slab (i) (ii) Slab is supported on all edges. Concrete Slab Cost. Floor performance is influenced by:. One-way and Two-way Slabs One-way slabs transfer the imposed loads in one direction only. However, EnergyPlus/OpenStudio uses the F-factor to generate the slab-on-grade floor zone by zone. Some forms of joints are: Contraction joints — are intended to create weakened planes in the concrete and regulate the location where cracks, resulting from dimensional changes, will occur. Complete Analysis & Design of a Slab on Grade Structure – Analyses uniform thickness finite Slab on Grade with free ends, supported by a vertical subgrade modulus and subjected to a Wall Load, Point Load and Uniform Pressure. 6 inches, or if rounded, 7 inches. From a global stability standpoint, the large hydrostatic force was Connection design calculations can be found in Appendix A-300. foundation analysis and design examples D The proposed foundation for the home is a system of steel pipe piles, a reinforced concrete grade beam, and concrete columns extending from the grade beam to the elevated structure. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Zhang Zachry Dept of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Statio n, Texas 77843 -3136, USA;. Analysis of a slab's capacity to support on interior line load or concentrated point load: On-screen warning messages for out of compliance conditions. The figures in the table seem less as the slab taken for calculation is a small size slab. 0*Pc s Le Le Pt di d4 d3 d2 d1 d2 d3 d4 di. Basis Of Floor Slab on Grade Design. The city requires a set of drawings detailing the location on your property where the concrete floating slab is to be placed and the structural design of the concrete. The most significant heat loss from the slab-on-grade occurs in the perimeter band of soil immediately adjacent to the building. Enter the depth, width, and length to calculate the amount of cubic yards needed for your concrete slab. 4 (30 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. Methodology. 3,500 psi for structural floor slabs or per engineered design, whichever is greater. design of slabs, flexible pile caps and footings.
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